Wednesday, 7 June 2017


WHO WON THE ELECTION?  13TH JUNE 2017 -  I agree with Polly Toynbee (Corbyn has rescued Britain from the chains of austerity. This is his moment – Guardian 13 June) where she writes “opinion polls may now be regarded as no better than political
astrology”. But I question her reasoning. Pollsters ignore a new force in politics. We, and most of our Remain friends, among the totally ignored 16.8 million 48% Remainers, along with the youth vote, did as Gina Miller, of Best for Britain, urged and voted tactically – not for Corbyn, not against May, not for the DUP – but against Brexit. Reality is dawning on the Quitters; this morning with The City losing more billions per day of Euros of business to the EU. Another election will bring the same tactical voting result. Britain does not want to be bankrupted by leaping off the White Cliffs of Dover with the ideological ill-informed Brexit lemmings. Gina Miller won the election. STOP SUICIDE BY BREXIT.

Noel HODSON - Author
Sci-Fi & Socio-Economics

9 JUNE 2017 - THE UK RESULTS ARE IN. It is a Hung Parliament. Mrs May has lost her big gamble. "They" will all have to cooperate, until the next uncivilised, back-stabbing, sour, stupid-soundbite, time-wasting election. Dear God - we are bored and weary with banal political posturing - and tedious, endless, meaningless, idiotic gabbling. They could and should say what they mean to say in a fraction of the words and time. And we would get more progress. 

In the meantime - what to do about BREXIT? 

Form a negotiating team of 27 experts, representing ALL the UK parties. 27 to match the 27 EU heads of state. Include eighteen year olds. Publish the targets and process - because the public have a right to comment on this nation's future. Tight-Lipped-Theresa will have to grow-up and discuss things. Barrack-room lawyer Corbyn will have to grow-up and risk stating positive ideas that others might criticise and snipe at; as he has for 50 years.

Send the fascist, EU insulting, obsessed Nigel Farage, to Trump Towers, to join the sweaty-handed incontinent, serial liar Demented Donald, to work for the break-up of the United States of America. THE DISUNITED STATES. It will be Donald's and Nigel's revenge on The Establishment - before they are found secure and safe lifetime beds in a suitable mental-hospital. "Mr Comey! Ya don'ta showa me no respect. You is terminated" 

(PS - URGENT - do take Donald's nuclear codes away, before he presses buttons, imagining he is tweeting. Put him in a fake White House with a huge TV screen). 

Jeremy Corbyn
Labour Party Leader
Slyly nudged the Labour BREXIT
Campaign to lose it. Has built a
600,000 popular following.

In power: Could revert to communism.

Theresa May
Tory Party Leader
Reverses her policies daily.
Would scrap Human Rights Laws.
Husband – Exec in $1.2 trillion
offshore tax-shelter fund.

Back in power: Hard BREXIT that will

Friday, 2 June 2017


A worker cleans a solar panel on top 
of a factory building in Baoding City. 
China is installing a soccer field's worth of solar 
panels every hour.
Photograph by Sean Gallagher, National Geographic Creative 


“The installation rates are absolutely mind-blowing,” says Lauri Myllyvirta, an energy and air pollution expert at Greenpeace in Beijing. China added 35 gigawatts of new solar generation in 2016 alone. “That’s almost equal to Germany’s total capacity, just in one year,” Myllyvirta says.
Every hour, China erects another wind turbine and installs enough solar panels to cover a soccer field, according to Greenpeace estimates.


WE ALL LOVE DONALD.  2ND June 2017. 

Trump’s attempted sabotage of the Paris Accord illustrates what a short-sighted bad businessman he is. The world is rapidly converting to renewable energy. There is no attempt to block USA growth by reducing fossil-fuels. That is paranoid talk from Demented Donald and Big-Oil. To rescue the Rust-Belt, Trump should pump-prime massive new green industries that will compete with China and others on renewables. Is it that America can’t compete? Instead of being a Luddite clown, he should convert all his Trump-buildings to green energy.  Like this Cotswold village:

Robert Llewellyn: How I inspired a green revolution in my Cotswold ... › Lifestyle › Men › The Filter
4 days ago - Temple Guiting is in many ways a classic English village. ... Robert Llewellyn: How I inspired a green revolution in my Cotswold village ... I didn't want Temple Guiting to go 'off the grid', I assured them – it was essential we ...

Many new housing developments will be self-sufficient in energy – green energy – even in the UK. Solar panels now work well under cloud. Wind energy is very efficient and competitive. We have infinite amounts of wave & tide energy.

Three Reasons to Believe in China's Renewable Energy Boom
12 May 2017 - It has atrocious air pollution. It fears climate change. And it wants to be a "manufacturing monster" in renewables too.

From 2005 to 2014, production of solar cells in China has expanded 100-fold. As Chinese renewable manufacturing has grown, the costs of renewable energy technologies have dropped dramatically. Innovation has helped, but the main driver of reduced costs has been market expansion.[4] In 2015 China became the world's largest producer of photovoltaic power, with 43 GW of total installed capacity.[5][6] Sources from Mr. Perez states that the renewable energy and emissions from China as the new world leader of the Paris Climate Accord will reduce their emissions sooner than the year 2030

It is a brave new world. Think it through.


Sent: 01 June 2017 16:49
To: Noel Hodson <>
Subject: RE: 'Dysfunctional' EU

Well, the opposite view of USA withdrawing from the Paris agreement is that it is the only way to make America great again.

Look at China saying they will take up green policies "in the long term". Yes after the West's industries have been killed off by "climate" policies, you can see China's game a mile off.

And it goes on .......



Wednesday, 31 May 2017


31 May 2017

Dear Noel HODSON


We hope you all enjoyed the long weekend which ended with last night’s TV Q&A with Jeremy Corbyn and Theresa May. Last night we learned that May is as keen as ever on her bogus line that ‘no deal is better than a bad deal’ and Corbyn sought to delineate his party from the Tories on Brexit by committing to keeping trading arrangements and upholding rights from the EU.

We’re gearing up for the last 9 days of the campaign and we need your help more than ever!
As always, sharing our Tactical Vote Dashboard is top of our wish-list and generally talking about tactical voting with your friends, family and work colleagues. We've put together a great animation on tactical voting which explains the difference it can make. If you've also found a good way to explain tactical voting, then let us know!

We have another favour to ask of some of you. With the promise of an extraordinary turnout, particularly of young people we want to make sure we get out their vote. Thanks to your donations amazing organisations like Bite the Ballot, Citizens UK, My Life My Say and RizeUp got over a million 18-24 year olds to register, and we have some exciting projects in the pipeline and we would love to hear from you if you are:
  • Age 18-24
  • In the London area
  • Could come to central London at 6pm tomorrow (Wednesday) evening...
If you’re up for that please write to us at and we will tell you more.
Thanks so much, and please keep spreading the word so we can reduce May’s majority and fight an extreme Brexit.
Very best,

Eloise Todd
CEO, Best for Britain

Copyright © 2017 Best for Britain, All rights reserved.
You're receiving this email because you opted in on the Best for Britain campaign (
Our postal address is: 11 Manchester Square London W1U 3PW
You can unsubscribe from this list.

Monday, 29 May 2017


New Scientist 27 May 2017 reports three items which I link together as indicative of more subtle forces being recognised by mainstream conservative science. 

FIRST: "Quantum tests could show if minds are matter - by Anil Ananathaswamy."  This reports on proposals to yet again test "spooky action at a distance" or entanglement, whereby sub-atomic particles that were once together (entangled) then split apart and whizz off to opposite ends of the universe; but mysteriously stay in communication and mirror each other's state - instantaneously, faster than light speed. My outline partial idea is that all energetic events broadcast their presence and behaviour as expanding spheres. The particles are patterns on, and of, the spheres. When one particle is disturbed, the sphere is disturbed, which changes the other particle. I draw a simile from accepted science, being the carrier wave that travels outside a telephone cable, while we suppose that electrical pulses race along inside the cable carrying the "real" signal. Faraday, one of the pioneers of the trans-Atlantic cable signals, realised this reality after other engineers several times tried to boost the signals by increasing the voltage and only succeeded in melting the cable. The mysterious, ephemeral electromagnetic carrier-wave is the reality that accurately transmits the message. The electric current focuses the data. I liken the carrier-wave to the surfaces of the expanding spheres. The author asks if the brain has the quality of "action at a distance"? My guess is that it does, as does the telephone wire. Our thoughts are energetic, coherent events that exist outside of ordinary-conventional-science-space and are broadcast as spheres. 

SECOND: "Electrical tweak lets worm grow two heads - by Jessica Hamzelou." It is relatively "old" conventional science that DNA is in turn organised by electromagnetic forces which link the atoms, that make the molecules and that probably switch on sequences of  allegedly "junk DNA" in Epigenetics. My guess is that there is no "junk" in DNA and that all DNA is potentially useful - with uses built up since the beginning of time - which are triggered by environment factors. We, humans, have the entire history of all of life in our genes. I conjecture that the DNA forming electrical signals exist in The Aether, as stable radio-electromagnetic-data, which is just as robust as signals our telescopes receive from the edges of the observable universe. These signals, these waves and wavicles are in-formed and re-formed by all energetic events - which, as in the paragraph FIRST, above, are broadcast in spheres to the horizon of the observable universe. In turn these patterns, these signals, this robust, legible data, forms our DNA. DNA is now known to change rapidly in response to the environment.

THIRD: "Narwhals may help monitor ice sheet - by Adam Popescu." What strikes me about this report of global meltdown, is the use of transmitters attached to narwhales (whales with a spear for a nose) and the scattering of many floating disposable transmitters, to transmit data to satellites about polar sea temperatures. Science takes for granted that weak, battery powered signals - less than mobile-phone or human-brain signals, are coherently transmitted from the oceans, to space satellites - and back to ground based laboratories for analyses. Considered with the FIRST and SECOND articles above it is astonishing and significant that such broadcasts remain legible, and of course, eventually fill the observable universe as do all broadcasts. An alien civilisation with instruments more sensitive than LIGO (searching for Gravitons - see my GRAVITY theory), could receive and read this data from our oceans. I think that all such broadcasts re-form and in-form the stuff of the universe, the Aether. All things, from galaxies to photons, broadcast their presence and processes - which is how we know they exist. 

"There are more things in Heaven and Earth Horatio..."

Wednesday, 24 May 2017


My wife and I are Mancunians. When I was aged 17, my office was by Manchester Cathedral, opposite the River Irwell in its 50 foot deep chasm, 100 yards from Victoria Station and the Manchester Arena. I know the place and the people very well. It is a great, multicultural city, of solid, independent, inventive and innovative people; that gave the world The Industrial Revolution and in 1810 became the richest city on Earth. Last week I published my Manchester memoirs, tales of our first 20 years. My book Dancing on the Half-Beat ends "And they all lived happily ever after."

Manchester Suicide Bomber - Salman Ramadan Abedi
SALMAN RAMADAN ABEDI, the mindless suicidal 22 year old idiot who blew himself to pieces on 22nd May 2017 - and slaughtered, maimed and wounded eighty youngsters and children - to celebrate Islam, the Muslim religion - prefers that the story should end "And they all died horribly - for Allah and Muhammad". 

He was an evil, deluded lunatic. Those who tutored and brain-washed him in their twisted, ugly interpretation of the Will of God and of their holy prophet, Muhammad, are still alive and are far more evil than the fool who they persuaded to slaughter himself and innocent children. These false-Imams, his teachers, will have justified warping his mind by reciting bits of text out of context dating from 600 AD - inciting Muslims to kill all non-believers. As a reward, these cowardly preachers almost certainly promised him seventy-two virgins on whom to wear-out his sad little prick to a sore, limp worm - after death, in heaven. 

Manchester Guardian Letters - 25 May 2017
As we attempt to come to terms with what has happened in Manchester, it is very important to draw attention to the fact that the attack was not simply an attack on children and teenagers: it was an attack on girls. The overwhelming majority of those attending the concert were female, and the perpetrator knew that. We will not grasp the irrational, confused and hate-filled thinking behind it unless we see it as an act of gender violence.
Isis and those brainwashed by them think that women are less than persons, and that their lives are to be disposed of as men see fit. The emancipation of women in the west forms a large part of any explanation for why our civilisation is hated by these brutal men.
Dr Rufus Duits


Christians and other biblical religions were stuffed with similar hate and sex myths. When God was upset by sinners he "Destroyed the Cities of Sodom and Gomorrah" and turned fleeing citizens into pillars of salt. (Really?) When he got very cross, he picked a city at random and "Killed all the men; all the women; all the children - and even All the Beasts of the fields - and all the crops". Jesus countered that violent madness - preaching love and forgiveness. But, by 300 AD, Christian philosophers had perverted his message, banned love and  sex, stoked up misogyny and sexual perversions and opened the doors to The Spanish Inquisition, heretic and witch-burning, and torture. But most Christians got over that crap by 1950. Islam also needs to grow up. 

As in many religions - Salman the Stupid will have been denied normal, healthy love and sex with females in life; to be driven by a build-up of intense and bewildering sexual frustration - often manifested in hatred of the women he desired; to be released through violence and self-destruction; and by belief in false fairy-tale promises - after death. What a dick-head. In our rugby teams, we described such an obsessive as "thinking with his prick". 

The pedlars and purveyors of these wicked falsehoods - steeped in hatred - the insane men and women who turned the killer's mind, are as guilty of the 22 murders and the 60 woundings, as is Salman Ramadan Abedi. 

All the leaders of Muslims, of Islam, need to step-up, speak-out and publicly erase the hatred and silly fairy-tales from their holy books and teachings. In the meantime such preachers, teachers, tutors, philosophers and interpreters of Islamic history should be tried and imprisoned for the crimes of their deluded, demented pupils - as accessories to, before and after, the wicked, evil crimes. 

Who taught the Manchester Suicide Bomber to hate? Put them on trial.


Heaven in the Islamic faith does not include 72 wide-eyed sex goddesses. The number ‘72’ does not appear anywhere in the Quran. Nor does the word “suicide” (intihar in Arabic) appear, which is a word used interchangeably with martyrdom.
The confusion that exists arises over one oral tradition by Imam Tirmidhi. He cleverly crafted the “72 virgins” that has now become instilled in the minds of radicalized and misinformed Muslim men. The real tragedy is that so few scholars have accepted that this controversy exists or have failed to challenge the misinterpreted verse “of the 72 virgins” in the Quran.
A well-known and widely transmitted hadith of imam al-Tirmidhi explicitly notes that male martyrs will enjoy the pleasure of seventy-two virgins in paradise:
According to al-Tirmidhi, a martyr has seven special favors from Allah. They are:
  • He [or she] is forgiven his sins with the first spurt of blood.
  • He sees his place in paradise; he is clothed with the garment of faith.
  • He is wed with seventy-two wives from the beautiful Maidens of paradise.
  • He is saved from the Punishment of the Grave.
  • He is protected from the Great Terror (Judgment Day).
  • On his head is placed a Crown of Dignity, better than any jewel.
  • The world and all it contains, and he is granted intercession.
  • And seventy people of his household will enter paradise.


Peace and conciliation[edit]

Numerous scholars and authors, both Muslim and non-Muslim have testified to the underlying rejection of violence, cruelty, coercion, and intolerance of the Quran and its embrace of justice and self-defence. According to Fawzy Abdelmalek, "many Muslim scholars speak of Islam as a religion of peace and not of violence. They say that the non-Muslims misunderstand the Quran verses about Jihad and the conduct of war in Islam."[17]
Nissim Rejwan asserts that, "violence and cruelty are not in the spirit of the Quran, nor are they found in the life of the Prophet, nor in the lives of saintly Muslims."[18]
According to Feisal Abdul Rauf, "the Quran expressly and unambiguously prohibits the use of coercion in faith because coercion would violate a fundamental human right—the right to a free conscience. A different belief system is not deemed a legitimate cause for violence or war under Islamic law. The Quran is categorical on this: "There shall be no compulsion in religion" (2:256); "Say to the disbelievers [that is, atheists, or polytheists, namely those who reject God] "To you, your beliefs, to me, mine" (109:1–6)"[19]
Charles Mathewes characterizes the peace verses as saying that, "if others want peace, you can accept them as peaceful even if they are not Muslim." As an example, Mathewes cites the second sura which commands believers not to transgress limits in warfare: "fight in God's cause against those who fight you, but do not transgress limits [in aggression]; God does not love transgressors" (2:190).[1]
Chiba and Schoenbaum argue that Islam "does not allow Muslims to fight against those who disagree with them regardless of belief system", but instead "urges its followers to treat such people kindly".[20][21][22][23]Yohanan Friedmann has argued that the Quran does not promote fighting for the purposes of religious coercion, although the war as described is "religious" in the sense that the enemies of the Muslims are described as "enemies of God" (8:57–62).[24]
Solomon A. Nigosian has argued that in "duty to halt aggression or to strive for the preservation of Islamic principles", fighting may be involved, where the Quran encourages them to "fight courageously and steadfastly against recalcitrant states, be they Muslim or non-Muslim." He also argues that the "Quranic statement is clear" on the issue of fighting in defence of Islam as "a duty that is to be carried out at all costs", where "God grants security to those Muslims who fight in order to halt or repel aggression".[25][page needed]
According to Chandra Muzaffar, "The Quranic exposition on resisting aggression, oppression and injustice lays down the parameters within which fighting or the use of violence is legitimate. What this means is that one can use the Quran as the criterion for when violence is legitimate and when it is not."[26]
In the Islamic telling of Cain and Abel, Abel tells his murderous brother that "If thou dost stretch thy hand against me to slay me, it is not for me to stretch my hand against thee to slay thee: for I do fear Allah".[27]Some scholars, such as Jawdat Said,[28] have identified this an example of pacifism.[29]
Various Ahmadis scholars like Muhammad AliMaulana Sadr-ud-DinBasharat Ahmad and also the British orientalist Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner argue that when the Quran's verses are read in context, it clearly appears that the Quran prohibits initial aggression, and allows fighting only in self-defense.[30][31][32][33][34]
Arvind Kumar writes:
The Quran sanctions violence to counter violence. If one studies history of Arab tribes before Islam and fierce fighting they indulged in one would be convinced that the philosophy of passive resistance would not have worked in that environment.[35]
Khaled Abou El Fadl asserts that "there is not a single verse in the Quran that calls for an unmitigated, unqualified, or unreserved obligation to fight the unbelievers."[36] According to Esposito and Mogahed, the Quran balances permission to fight the enemy with a strong mandate for making peace.[37][38]

Monday, 22 May 2017


I have observed a Crookes Radiometer on my office window sill since January 2015. Its varying speed turning paddle wheel motion, I conclude, is not driven by temperature as some theories aver - but is driven by light.

The 4 paddles are black on one side and silver on the other, attached by wires to a hollow central axle made of glass, which is balanced on a steel-needle. Inside the bulb is a vacuum - in theory - but how could I test this? Probably, variations in temperature do expand and contract the materials and so affect the speed of rotation - but the affect is undetectable to my eye, even for wide variations in temperature - from near freezing to +20C.

Variations in daylight  and torchlight (including "cold" light from LED's) have an immediate and measurable effect on the speed of rotation. Whatever light, electromagnetic radiation, consists of (mostly photons and other subatomic wavicles) these particles and waves impact the black side and drive the rotation.

This black-drive is for me counter-intuitive. I had assumed that photons would reflect off the silver-side and drive the rotation. But, I have read, and can now observe,  that the light adds to the weight of the black coating, and does not add to the weight of the silver coating, and thus pushes the paddles around. The black absorbs the light (hence it is black to our sight) while the silver bounces them away (hence it shines to our sight) - powering black-drive.

The new theory of gravity:
GRAVITY - I was given a Crookes Radiometer after explaining my theory of gravity to a friend. My theory depends on light having mass. There are several experiments that do ascribe very slight mass to light - and my Crookes Radiometer affirms this.

New Scientist - 17 June 2017 - page 33.  "Right to silence" by Stephen Battersby. 
An article on bandwidths and the whole electromagnetic - light spectrum. I still, after 60 years of puzzling, cannot visualise radio waves - wavelengths - odd little photons, electrons and so on. But, the evidence is with the experts, who in this article are the folk who divvy out the bandwidths for hundreds of practical applications - from 10 KHz (kilohertz) which have wavelengths measured in kilometres (between the tops of the waves) up to 100 GHz, which are tiny little wavelengths emitted by such things as water and carbon monoxide molecules - which enable measurements of immense galactic gas clouds, which form galaxies. From TV signals & phone signals to intergalactic Quasar signals to brainwaves in a brain scanner - ALL that we "see" and know is carried to us by these waves. And it is carried coherently, faithfully, accurately through millions of diverse mediums, across sub-atomic and universal distances - in data rich transmissions - across BLYs (billions of light-years). Read the article - its very informative. It suddenly dawned on me that that, yet again, these signals fill the universe. They are the "stuff of the universe" which inform and reform the Aether, every split-second. They have identity. They have substance. They carry the patterns of atoms and molecules. They have data. They have mass. Light has mass. As the signals attempt to penetrate the Earth - they get blocked. The deeper we delve, the fewer wavelengths we can see or hear. This is Casimir's exclusion of wavelengths (between plates). The lack of EM waves within the Earth, within the planet, while ALL waves surround our planet and solar system, and come to us from "the edge of the observable universe" (13.7 to 42.7 bly) and fill the entire universe. The pressure of such waves outside our planet is greater than the lack of pressure inside our planet. It is the push and the pull of gravity.

I guess that the waves can only be seen and heard and measured when they resonate with the crystalline  or complex structures of the elements which form matter. A crystal-set radio needs a crystal structure and tuning whisker that matches the broadcast in order to tune in to its wavelength. Does the signal exist without its receiver? I think this theory of gravity is correct.

HIGGS - Where and how does it "confer" mass to massless particles?Does it explain gravity?  

Some purple prose. A new, equally incomprehensible article by Jon Cartwright, THE HIGGS BANG, in New Scientist magazine 10 June 2017, advances my Higgs knowledge - not at all. 

"Subsequent work showed that the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism (or “Higgs mechanism,” for short) could give mass not only to weak particles, but also to electrons, quarks, and other fundamental particles. The more strongly a particle interacts with the Higgs field, the more massive it is. It’s important to note, however, that most of the mass in composite particles, like protons, nuclei, and atoms, does not come from the Higgs mechanism, but from the binding energy that holds these particles together."

MAY 2016 - CERN EXPLAINS : On 4 July 2012, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider announced they had each observed a new particle in the mass region around 126 GeV. This particle is consistent with the Higgs boson predicted by the Standard Model. The Higgs boson, as proposed within the Standard Model, is the simplest manifestation of the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism. Other types of Higgs bosons are predicted by other theories that go beyond the Standard Model.

On 8 October 2013 the Nobel prize in physics (link is external) was awarded jointly to Fran├žois Englert and Peter Higgs "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider."

I have read about 100 explanations and descriptions of The Higgs,  attended a lecture at the Royal Society given by 4 CERN professors, and exchanged emails with the speakers. None of this has conveyed to me how it works. I am tempted to quote Einstein "If  you cannot explain it simply - you have not understood it well enough". The Physics Forum tutor below destroys any hope that understanding of the Higgs might be accessible to ordinary humble bumbling humans, telling us that we must first learn to speak pure-physics-mathematics, which takes decades. From 2008 I attended 3 years of particle and astrophysics evening classes - and just about coped with the maths homework - and I have read about these topics for more than 50 years. I am beginning to suspect that The Higgs and other impenetrable "Standard Model" descriptions might fall into the group of topics which my arithmetically astute, cynical father defined as "Bullshit Baffles Brains".
At what point does immersing  a student in incomprehensible maths-language, used by a handful of highly specialised isolated souls who cannot put their ideas into words, become a cult that employs intensive brain-washing?  
From what I have gleaned about The Higgs Bosun, The Higgs Field and The Higgs Mechanism - they do not create or explain mass or gravity. They do not explain how "straw is spun into gold" to make matter. 

I don't feel like you'll make much headway into this just by asking a few questions about random topics that you've read concerning the higgs field and mass. So far, it seems like members are spending more time correcting your misunderstandings than explaining the subject. You need to learn a lot more of the very basics of quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and several other topics before you'll be able to grasp exactly what is happening. Most importantly, remember that our theories are primarily math based and any attempt to "translate" it into common language is almost certain to fail. Without knowing how to read the math, it's unlikely you'll get very far. Unfortunately this is not an easy task. People spend years in college learning both the math and the theories.





13 April 2016 - Propelled by light from a laser beam on Earth, a feather-weight Breakthrough Starshot craft is being designed to go on a 40 trillion km, 20 year flight to Alpha Centauri, at 1/5th light-speed; 60,000 km per second. BREAKTHROUGH FOUNDATION

In 1901, various labs measured light-pressure

LIGHT HAS MASS - “…The final measurement was the most accurate ever recorded, and the calculated pressure deviated just ten percent from Maxwell’s theoretical value of 4.7 x 10-6 N/m2. This disparity was well within the experimental error”  
(N stands for Newtons, used in gravity calculations – being 102 grams, the weight of a small apple – 0.0000047N spread over one square-metre is pretty small)

More about mass for light. My Crookes Radiometer is on a north facing window-sill, which also gets reflected light from a south facing white wall of a house about 50 metres distant. Last night I left the window open when the temperature dropped to 1C. The windowsill, room and Radiometer were chilled. Yet, as the sun rose the Radiometer revolved as it usually does in this room when heated to 20C. After 4 months of such observations, I conclude that the spinning paddle is driven by light, not heat, and the spin speeds up and slows down immediately with the intensity of the light; irrespective of temperature. The Radiometer paddle is being moved by the mass of light, with the black side driving. Light has mass.

(PS -  I have just read this might be a Nichols Radiometer, driven by light. It is argued that Crookes Radiometer is driven by bouncing gas molecules - i.e. heat) 


Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between electromagnetic radiation and bodies of various types, including clouds of particles or gases. The interactions can be absorption, reflection, or some of both (the common case). Bodies also emit radiation and thereby experience a resulting pressure.
The forces generated by radiation pressure are generally too small to be detected under everyday circumstances; however, they do play a crucial role in some settings, such as astronomy and astrodynamics. For example, had the effects of the sun's radiation pressure on the spacecraft of the Viking program been ignored, the spacecraft would have missed Mars orbit by about 15,000 kilometers.[1]
This article addresses the macroscopic aspects of radiation pressure. Detailed quantum mechanical aspects of interactions are addressed in specialized articles on the subject. The details of how photons of various wavelengths interact with atoms can be explored through links in the See also section.
Solar sails[edit]
Main article: Solar sail
Solar sailing, an experimental method of spacecraft propulsion, uses radiation pressure from the Sun as a motive force. The idea of interplanetary travel by light was mentioned by Jules Verne in From the Earth to the Moon.
A sail reflects about 90% of the incident radiation. The 10% that is absorbed is radiated away from both surfaces, with the proportion radiated from the unlit surface depending on the thermal conductivity of the sail. A sail has curvature, surface irregularities, and other minor factors that affect its performance.
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has successfully unfurled a solar sail in space which has already succeeded in propelling its payload with theIKAROS project.

Cosmic effects of radiation pressure[edit]

The misapprehension is the statement light has no mass. The true statement is "a photon has no mass" .
Two photons can very well carry a mass, the measure of the added four vectors. There exists an invariant mass even for mass less particles, this is for two photons with an angle theta in their direction of motion:
And this is just for two photons. An electromagnetic wave will always diverge, there is a 1/r**2 (laser light diverges less) fall in the energy density of the wave, and there will be angles between the multitude of photons. Thus an electromagnetic wave can be characterized by a total mass, but that has nothing to do with information of course. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle will also ensure that there will always be some divergence.

SPACE SHIP DRIVE - There are several space vehicles being built that will be driven by solar-winds adding energy to giant ultra-lightweight sails; including the Starshot Spacecraft (see link above).

FINALLY - Science fiction has often inspired, predated and predicted breakthroughs in science fact. So I leave you with my Space Chimney Drive, also using light, that drives a "flying saucer" from Earth to the edge of our solar system. It is based on today's science - and it is useful to remind ourselves that such emerging science-ideas or fantasy could lead Mankind to Boldly Go. 

CHAPTER 29:  Journey into Space.

The Citizens were herded to a circular seating area with viewing screens.

“Very briefly” announced a young woman who had taken over from Samba who was now fifty yards away huddled with a group around bafflingly complex control panels, “…I’ll give you an outline of the flight we’re taking together and – very, very briefly – how The Queen works.”

As she started speaking the clearest pictures they had yet experienced flashed up on the guests’ inner PC screens – and on the display screens.

“…The Queen is solar powered. Powered by starlight. Every square centimetre of surface absorbs light, the electromagnetic field, and converts it to electricity…”

Illustrations of light being captured by solar cells converting at eighty-two percent efficiency accompanied the lecture.

“…the craft is a Space-Chimney… For the Concorde Survivor’s understanding I’ll describe it…”

EmmSon nodded at Sebastian, confirming that he was right and Sebastian wrong.

“…The rim of the Queen spins on frictionless vacuum bearings at sixty-thousand kilometres a second…”

The illustration showed the fat outside rim starting to rotate and getting up to speed so rapidly that it moved faster then the eye could follow and became a blur.

“In the atmosphere, with variable geometry blades, it acts like a helicopter wing. The rotation lifts the Queen upwards – not of course strong enough to get her off the ground at any speed, but you’ll see its ability to effectively make the craft weightless and lift it in Earth’s lower atmosphere…”

Complicated wind tunnel tests showed the rim sprouting short turbine blades and spinning in smoky spirals, which any flight engineer would recognise as evidencing lift. Joe was interested to see that the Citizens were fascinated. They obviously hadn’t seen this before.

The young woman continued at a fast pace “…The rim is also the main space drive – when we switch the chimney on…”

“…on the top of the rim are laser beams placed close together so that when its rotating a seamless column of coherent light – the chimney – beams upwards…”

A graphic of a disk with separate lights at its rim shining fiercely out into space was flashed on screen.

“…The beams are magnetically polarised to attract all and any particles within the chimney to the “walls” of light. This creates an internal vacuum relative to the external pressure and the chimney effect is created.”

“…under The Queen, the rim has lasers that form a cone of light which is polarised the opposite way – to attract particles making the zone beneath the ship of a higher pressure than the ambient external pressure – and far higher than the vacuum in the chimney above.”

“The Chimney reaches out without losing its focus or polarity for a quarter of a million miles. So the “top” of the chimney is about as far away as the Moon. Any questions so far?” she challenged her audience, impatient to get this over with. No-one dared to delay the presentation.


“…Hence the concept of a smoke-stack chimney which joins the high pressure ground air with the lower pressure air at its top, creating an upward flow. Burning fuel at the bottom increases the flow as the warmed air is less dense. The Queen’s lasers do the same job but instead of air flow, what sits in the chimney is the space-craft itself…”

She surveyed her small audience waiting, impatiently, for the penny to drop. She made minute hand movements indicating they should as soon as possible, as soon as their limited intellects caught up, see the point. All around them people were bustling and making ready – and she, a co-pilot, was anxious to get to her station.

“Ah!” rejoined David AA, to everyone’s relief, “The Queen herself is equivalent to the airflow and rises up the chimney…”     “Low pressure above and high below…   But…” he added with some bravery as their rapid fire tutor was not inviting any detours, “…how do you steer it? The Queen, doesn’t it just go straight up The …Chimney … In Smoke… as it were?” and he grinned sheepishly in case he had asked a totally dumb question.

His momentary fear was quickly alleviated, “Good question…” she praised him – and more graphics flashed onto the screens, “A very good question. Now you see why The Queen is saucer shaped. We point the laser-chimney at our destination, which can be near or far. Wherever we point the lasers, the craft must follow…”

David AA looked pleased with himself and all his colleagues gave themselves a pat on the back for concentration and alertness.

“…The Queen has to be shaped so that when the laser-chimney is fired at an acute angle it doesn’t intersect the ship’s superstructure – otherwise BOOM! It would disintegrate all the particles within the chimney – and end of story! end of us all and end of The Queen.  …So its saucer shaped.”

Sebastian smiled triumphantly at EmmSon in an utterly childish “I-told-you-so” retaliation.

“…And finally,” said the young tutor already moving away from them “…once in the chimney we are subject to constant acceleration – so, as Einstein figured out, we get gravity beneath our feet…until we decelerate. When we approach a planet, we reverse the polarities above and below; and it slows us down. Now I really must go. Enjoy your flight – see you later.”

Though the latter was so obviously not her intention they ignored it.

EmmSon, less cowed than the rest by this fast talking, dismissive informant, called after her “But – hey! Hey Miss – But where are we going?”

She stopped and turned, with a look which would make a lesser man tremble. This co-pilot was not to be trifled with. Without taking a single step back to them she flashed up a diagram on the screens, “There. We’re going there. And then we’re coming back again – all in thirty-six hours…  …If we ever get off the ground” she admonished. “Got it?”

They all nodded obediently. Eloise had to admire the mind-power of this young woman and wondered if she might one day decide to train in the Mind-Warrior art.

The diagrams and recorded explanations showed that The Queen was about to take them ten to the power of six Earth-radii – sixty-billion kilometres, to the Kuiper Belts at the edge of the Solar System. Light from the Sun would take an hour to reach those frozen wastes, just beyond the orbits of Pluto and Neptune. The Queen would travel there, taking the long route, sling-shotting round the Sun, to rendezvous with the Earth’s most distant scientific satellite, in fifteen hours, at an average speed of twenty-thousand kilometres a second or seventy-two million kilometres an hour; its maximum speed being almost twice that to allow for acceleration and deceleration to align with the satellite’s speed.